Based on a True Story

Wifesy and I were watching J. Edgar the other day.  I’m a huge Dustin Lance Black fan.  As we were watching it, we were struck with a couple of moments where we thought, “That can’t be true.”  Wifesy goes nuts when she’s watching something that she knows is based on a real person’s life, right away, she wants to know what’s true and what’s not.  When the truth gets stretched, she gets angry.


As a writer, this doesn’t bother me as much.  I feel that the author has license and that whatever is in the interest of making a good story better, well, that’s okay by me.  Lie if you want.  Elaborate.  Exaggerate.  I don’t mind.  But, not Wifesy if she feels that she’s being lied to in a story, she takes it personally.  It’s like you’re lying right to her face.


The moments we thought must’ve been fictionalized were moments between Hoover and his supposed (most likely) lover.  The two of them were in a room and Hoover was questioning his “loyalty” once again.  Hoover was an odd man and it was, for sure, an intimate moment.  It was also very melodramatic.  We thought that, without a doubt, Mr. Black, the writer, had taken some license with that part of the story.  There was also a fight scene between Hoover and his alleged lover in their hotel room.  Again, as Wifesy pointed out, only the two of them were in the room and they are both dead.  So, it had to be made up.  She had to know.  I had to know.  So, I began google searching.  I looked up interviews with Dustin and found out, nope, those moments were not fabricated.  Neither of them.  Both moments were based on conversations that were overheard by others in adjoining rooms.  Fascinating stuff, but no surprise to me because Black is known for his extensive research.


All of this “was it true,” “was it not true” talk got me thinking about the James Frey controversy concerning his book, A Million Little Pieces.  I’ve read the book and I LOVED it.  It’s an incredibly awesome, page-turning, “memoir” about supposedly Frey’s life.  That’s where the controversy comes in.  Apparently, sections of the book were made up.  What Frey admitted to were that accounts of his criminal record were highly exaggerated.  The Smoking Gun website opened up this can of worms by trying to find a mug shot of Frey and coming up empty.


It went down something like this.  Oprah had originally endorsed the book.  It was sold as a “memoir.”  Once Oprah endorsed it, the book sailed to the top of the New York Times Bestseller list and remained there for 15 weeks.  After the Smoking Gun and other journalists started poking around, Oprah had Frey and Frey’s publicist back on her show.  This is when all hell broke loose.  Oprah held Frey and his publisher to the fire demanding to know what was true and what was not true.


I saw the interview and James Frey looked like a fish caught on a line desperately trying to break free.  It was goddermned uncomfortable.  Basically, Oprah made Frey incredibly popular as an author and then destroyed him.



However, one thing bothered me.  I didn’t care.  I didn’t care that portions of the book were made up.  It was still a damn good book.  I did not feel outraged that he stretched the truth.  I just didn’t.  As a writer, I feel like, “good on you,” you made your story better.


But, it says something about non-fiction writing.  It gets inside of you and under your skin.  People feel like they know you and that becomes personal.  So, when things aren’t true, readers feel betrayed.  I think this is what happens to Wifesy.  Me, though, I tend to give the author far more leeway.


In terms of blog writing, we all know how important authenticity is.  What is blog writing,  and a lot of what appears here on WordPress, if not non-fiction writing?  People have told me time and again that what they like reading about is my life.  It makes you feel like you know a person.  It makes you feel like you have a bird’s eye view into their world.


However, I question how you ever know a person through their writing or any other artistic expression because what is often presented is a “best” version of one’s self or a heightened version of moments and events.  Once an event is in the past, it goes through different filters in our mind that color it and process it and then – maybe, just maybe – a similar to the truth version gets served up to the reader.


Yesterday, I found myself telling the story of A Dolphin’s Tale to my family over lunch.  It’s the based-on-a-true-story of a dolphin that gets a prosthetic tail through the help of a veterinarian and a caring community.  It’s a pretty amazing story, even while coming off a bit Disney-ish.


After my re-telling, my brother said, “Is that all true?  Did that really happen?”


Now, I know there was a dolphin and he did get a tail.  But, I’m not sure there was a little boy who became enamored with the dolphin and then inspired a whole community!  I’m not sure if that little detail – meaning the entire main character of the film! – is even true.  But, there was a dolphin and a prosthetic, so I said to my brother, “Yeah, it’s a true story.”


He seemed almost relieved.  I was glad I could help.


What about you?  Do you need memoirs and “based on a true stories” to be completely true or will you allow a bit of fabrication?  As always, I’d love to know what you think.



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62 thoughts on “Based on a True Story

  1. I watched J. Edgar last week and wondered the same thing about those private exchanges! It was tough for me to figure out what Tolleson saw in that mixed-up little man. I want supposed nonfiction to be true, with as little fabrication as possible, mainly because, as with J. Edgar, I spend a lot of time afterward analyzing and speculating on a character’s motivation and psyche. When I can’t trust the story, I can’t figure out what makes that person tick.

    1. yeah, i so go back and forth on this, amber….because i feel the same way about hoover. i for some reason wanted it to be as true as possible so that i can enjoy a movie and get a history lesson at the same time. but, with a million little pieces, i just didn’t care as much. i’m not sure why? maybe because his was a personal story of recovery and i’m sure that’s going to get shaded many different ways as you go through the process, regardless. i don’t know, but it is interesting nonetheless. much love, sm

  2. Did you read Shantaram? I thought it was all completely true and was living absolutely vicariously through it till some bastard burst my bubble. I still love the book because it feels real enough to chew but I felt gulled too,
    Portia xx

    1. hmmm, i haven’t. but, i undoubtedly will now! i think i’m missing that ‘i’ve been duped by this book!’ gene. wifesy has it. i think i’m bothered when it’s a historical figure and then it’s not true, but then again i loved inglorious bastards and we all know hitler wasn’t killed in a movie theater… it’s a strange one, this. why am i talking like that? i have no idea. lol. xoxox, sm

  3. I have to say I get really pissed off when “factual” pieces end up being less than fact. Call it fiction based on truth then. But I was trained as a historian so I get ticked off more than most people on these things. I refuse to watch movies like “J Edgar” because I know they’ll just annoy me. Mr. Weebles knows that if we watch a period movie, I will nitpick at it unmercifully (which is one of the reasons he watches very few period movies with me). I didn’t read the Frey book but when someone writes about something and says it’s true, I expect that it will be true. If it isn’t, then it isn’t a memoir anymore, it’s fiction. So I think Frey is a fraud. I can certainly be entertained by fiction, but I want things to be packaged appropriately. I’m probably a lot more prissy about this sort of thing than most people. And now if you’ll excuse me, I’m going to tell those darned kids to get off my lawn and stop playing that loud modern music.

    1. looool. yeah, you’re not alone in this. wifesy gets hella annoyed too. i wasn’t bothered by the frey issue. i just wasn’t for some reason. and if i were to blame anyone, i’d blame the publisher. publishers seem to want to do zero works these days and i feel like they should fact check it. but, they don’t. even my own book agent has told me this. it’s a strange, strange world. much love, sm

  4. We saw that movie as well. I think certain parts of it could have done been done better but I know that’s not what your post is about! I haven’t read the Frey book but I heard it was excellent. After everyone heard all of it wasn’t true, people began bashing it and I saw that interview you’re referring to — it was awkward and uncomfortable. I thought he handled himself well and apologized profusely.

    I think any “true” story is heightened for entertainment purposes, just as many fictional books have some kernel of non-fiction to them. Prince of Tides was “fiction” but it’s obvious from reading about Pat Conroy, much of that fiction was based loosely on his formative years growing up.

    Sorry to ramble, the answer to your question is this: I think it’s okay to allow a bit of fabrication. The author has some creative license when writing, don’t ya think?

    1. i think that, but a lot of people get really pissed about it. i want the story to be good above all else. i do think it’s a bit about ‘classification,’ and maybe there needs to be a new category, like ‘mostly true’ or something. lol. but, then again ‘based on a true story’ is that. it’s based on. it’s not here’s the entirely true story… yeah, as far as the hoover movies itself, i thought it was a lot of ground to cover and they did a good job, but some of it came of as just okay to me…whereas, i though milk was almost flawless. so, there you have it. lol. much love, sm

  5. I must confess to having a bit of a double standard on this one. While I don’t generally a “based on a true story” or memoir to be absolutely 100% factually accurate, I expect myself to be absolutely 100% factually accurate in my writing and to immediately point out when I don’t know what the heck I’m talking about and I’m just pulling it all out of my hat…or other places. This one is 100% factually accurate! xoxoM

    1. interesting that you hold yourself to such a strict standard and not others. i still don’t know where i stand on this. i go back and forth. but, the debate is SO interesting! much love, sm

      1. Possibly because while I accept that others are telling a story, I feel a responsibility to inform? Obviously, it’s complicated! xoxoM

  6. OMG, I just watched J. Edgar last night. Now I am wondering….is my husband in your LinkedIn network? Is he including this stuff in his updates? (kidding, of course)
    I love fiction, love it. I will buy into a story absolutely, but I’m with Wifesy on this point, if something is presented as truth, I think it oughta darn well be true.

    I thought the pace of the movie was slow, the old age make up was a little too baked and the long pauses and longing looks a little over done, but true? Well, I also wondered how anyone could have known all of those private details, since like you said, they are dead. I decided, okay, blackmail, true. Dysfunctional family dynamics, true. Paranoia and fear allowing uncontested power of a government agency, true. Unrequited love because of social stigma, true. I thought it was sad that they were so tortured. The fight scene brought that home, didn’t it? So overall, I’d have to say true. If any artistic license was taken, well, that’s entertainment. 🙂

    1. honie, gorgeous commentary, as always. and stop wearing my pants. loool. thought i should say that due to the mayor and j edgar coincidences. too funny. i am ‘looser’ about the ‘it better be true’ rule, but at the same time i want historical stuff to be true. as with many things, i’m of two minds on this subject. the sweet spot is usually somewhere inbetween, i think, when an author combines fact with fiction… sigh. mostly, i don’t know what should be done. loool. much love, sm

  7. I don’t mind the truth getting stretched a little. When there was no record of a conversation, but a certain outcome was known, sometime those conversations can be made up.

    What I HATE is when the truth is completely broken. When the ONLY remaining factual were the characters names. It breaks my brain.

  8. Hunter S. Thompson made a career of exaggerated non-fiction by creating the Raul Duke alter ego – an unapologetic veil of perception through drugs.

    Frey had this opportunity, he just marketed himself incorrectly by writing as absolute truth. Whether his decision or the publisher, not sure, but he sure didn’t mind being promoted as such.

    Sad part is ‘A million little pieces’ was/is still a great book. I felt slightly betrayed by Frey’s lie, more disappointed because I thought it would still sell as fiction. Perhaps not ‘Oprah Sell’, but it would have sold.

    Just as some people can’t ‘handle the truth’, some can’t handle fictions. Stedman lied to Oprah once. Once.

    1. loooooool. i love ‘stedman lied to oprah. once. once.’ looool. yeah, i think that’s the publisher’s fault for calling it a memoir. he tried to sell it as ‘semi-true fiction’ if you read his wiki page and apparently no one would bite, which is probably why he went with the publisher who would sell it as a memoir. i think it’s a great read. it’s sad or retarded or both that no one would pick it up as fiction. doesn’t make no darned sense… much love, sm

  9. I’ve been able to enjoy fictionalized “true stories” ever since my dad took me to the library to debunk Disney’s “Pocahantas” as a nine-year-old (no daughter of mine will be duped by romanticized historical inadequacies!!). Usually I assume that most people on screens of all kinds are misrepresenting themselves, but I don’t go to movies to be educated typically. Suspension of disbelief = lower blood pressure.

    Also, as for the blogging phenomenon of feeling connected to someone who has slightly fictionalized themselves…isn’t that the best part? Blogging is one of the few forms of social media where that kind of representation is a boon rather than a barrier. The constant self-promotion on Facebook can kind of come across as pathetic sometimes, even if you know the person in question is worth your attention (and painful if you know that they really aren’t). I feel like blogging is kind of an interaction of all of our best-selves because it requires us to think things through instead of vomiting unnecessary details of our life all over the internet. When we focus on putting our best selves in public view, even if we’ve slightly put ourselves through an editing process, the overall product is a lot more entertaining and enjoyable.

    1. craft fear, this commentary is SO GOOD that i’m just going to let it stand as is without commenting very much. i think everyone should read it. however, i will say i thoroughly enjoyed, ‘…instead of vomiting unnecessary details of our life all over the internet.’ that sentence was completely brills! and true. anyway, thank you for reading and i’m very glad you left this comment here. all the best, mother

  10. Oh, I remember the Oprah/Frey interview. Oprah was pissed! That was intense. I wouldn’t say I felt betrayed about the Frey thing. I didn’t even read the book, but I feel like if you’re going to say it really happened then it better have happened. Of course we’re all going to have our own individual take on things, but don’t outright lie.

    Husband and I come from screwy families and we’ve seen some shit, let me tell ya. So when I read an equally or more appalling story from someone else I feel like I’m not alone. It comforts me in some strange way and I think , “hey if they could get through something so awful so can I”. I think people connect on that level when they read non-fiction. When you open up emotionally to someone, even if it’s in your mind, you’re vulnerable. And when you’re vulnerable and you get duped it feels like someone kicked your puppy. It’s real painful. Does that make sense?

    1. totally makes sense. and i could see your point with frey IF he had made the whole thing up. but, i don’t think he did. i think he embellished his trip to the dentist and parts of his criminal record. but, did he go to rehab? yep. and that’s what the book is about, so it didn’t bother me. i just thought oprah and the media at large went way overboard with it and really lynched the guy. seriously. and no one took that side. no one said, it’s a ‘mostly’ true story and maybe he should’ve have been hung out to dry. everyone instead said, ‘he lied! he lied!’ in my opinion. xo, sm

  11. I totally agree with you here “However, I question how you ever know a person through their writing or any other artistic expression because what is often presented is a “best” version of one’s self or a heightened version of moments and events. “…

    Sweet Mom to me a story is always fascinating fiction or non-fiction..ofcourse if its a reality based plot little authenticity would be nice …

  12. Everything is fictionalized to an extent or everything would read like a court transcript, with every word and detail logged at equal value. That would be tedious, boring, and at times TMI (I don’t need to know Abe Lincoln’s bathroom habits to appreciate his political gamesmanship). In non-fiction, some parts get emphasized, others conflated, and still others de-emphasized, overlooked, or left out completely. Never read or watch anything expecting the entire truth or objectivity. Even a cameraman chooses where to point the lens, leaving what’s outside the frame outside the story.

  13. Funny how many of us watched J.Edgar this week! I watched 3 nights ago and wondered about the same things… as well as the scene where Hoover puts on his mother’s dress, after her death, and stands before a mirror.

    In blog land, I go for authenticity and try to write without filters. I do make an effort not to hurt or embarrass anyone, but other than that I make an enormous effort to not worry about what others will think. I block out who might be reading this/that post and just write it. I appreciate that in other blogs as well.

    Interesting post Mom.

    1. ok, the dress is very interesting, second mother… i read in articles with black that apparently hoover was NOT really a crossdresser. everything dustin found indicated that the crossdressing was rumor and pretty unfounded. so, i think he threw that dress in front of the mirror after his mother’s death scene because it allowed him to discuss the ‘rumors’ but was also a justifiable thing someone might do if someone very close has just died. fascinating stuff. much love, sm

  14. I think I give more leeway only because I know my memory is for sh*t and when I write about the past, I’m thinking “I think this was how this went down? Maybe?” Memories are such fluid things.

    On another note, we’re suppose to be putting our best selves out there? I really got that part wrong for myself. I think I’m a little better than Bachelor Pad, but that could be my faulty memory at work.

  15. I admit, I need the truthiness. When I read A Million Little Pieces, it was after the whole public flogging from Oprah, and so I was able to enjoy the book knowing it wasn’t all true. I very much identify with Wifesy on this one.

  16. Great post Mum. I stick to fiction because then I don’t have to worry about any of this, except, of course when some of the writing rings so true that you just have to wonder whether it’s based on some real life experience.

    As humans we always star in our own realities and they rarely match anyone else’s view [of us or the event] so I take all claims of ‘truth’ with a grain of salt. Nonetheless I think there are times when we /betray/ a truth without meaning to. Those are the moments that make my truth meter whistle and clang.

    1. a couple of things here, meeks – a) i read somewhere that fiction writers DO fictionalize real events and real conversations. they sort of ‘parallel’ a person, so to speak. i know i’ve done that the few times i’ve written fiction. and b) the other thing wifesy loves is fantasy stories – like really loves. all the harry potters, game of thrones, there was another one in there too. i like them, but not as much as her. but, she must know it’s fantasy and she must know it’s real… so interesting. much love, sm

      1. You’re right Mum, no-one ever writes in a vacuum and even fictional characters are based on the writer’s reality but it’s a reality once removed from the real world, if that makes sense.

        I adore Game of Thrones as well because the fantasy is balanced by characters I can empathize with and that makes them feel real. Ask Wifesy if she’s read Robin Hobb’s Farseer trilogy or any of the other stories set in that world. If she hasn’t I’d really, really recommend them!


  17. I know all things are subjective, which is why I could never write something called a “memoir” because my recollection and interpretation of events might not match anyone else’s. I had a problem with the publishers entitling it a memoir. I think that was a tactical error. I’m a big fan of “mostly true memoir” and “based on a true story”. When in doubt, leave the “memoir” word off and let people come to their own conclusions. Then you can tell Oprah “these are my interpretation of events. How’s Gail?”

    1. looool, so true follies, so true. i’m REALLY with you on this one. i feel it was the publisher’s fault. he tried to sell it at many different houses as ‘based on a true story.’ this particular publisher picked it up and wanted to change it to memoir. i’m never going to blame an author trying to get published, in that regard. it a publishing house says to me, okay we’d like to sell your book as medical drama…i don’t think i’d hear anything past, ‘we’d like to sell your book’ and i’d let them do whatever they wanted. loool. much love, sm

  18. Wait… we are supposed to be writing non fiction here…. I start with non fiction then expand for dramatic effect. Because nothing makes stories better than added drama.

  19. I’m like Wifesy in the respect that I love to read up on anyone after watching a movie or documentary about their life. However, you have to expect some dramatic license when it comes to filmmaking. Hell, they rarely remain loyal to works of fiction – and sometimes the truth isn’t stranger than fiction. Sometimes the truth is just boring.

    David Sedaris has also been called out for embellishing his stories – essays that he claims are “true.” But it’s humor. And he’s writing about his own life. If he wants to bedazzle an ordinary story with some extraordinary details, what do I care? Who doesn’t do that just a little bit in conversation from time to time?

    I’m glad you brought up the James Frey incident because I’ve always felt that Oprah…well, went a little batshit crazy over the whole thing. He lied about his life; not someone else’s. His life is his to do whatever he wants with. And everyone loved the book. The book’s stories aren’t what matters in the end; it’s how those stories make us feel and how they change who we are. Fiction has had the power to do this since its inception; thus, it is no surprise that an embellished memoir can do the same. The fact that To Kill A Mockingbird isn’t “true” doesn’t make it any less powerful or poignant.

    Nice post – oh, and I’m adding you to my new blogroll page – all part of my new blog name and look.

    1. a new blog name and look…interesting, very interesting. i look forward to checking it out and thank you for the inclusion in the blogroll. i am so with you on your james frey commentary. you hit the nail on the head as far as i feel about it. a) oprah went overboard, in my opinion. b) who cares if some of the details were made up it’s hist life and it does not change the powerfulness of the story. c) who doesn’t do this from time to time… that’s exactly how i feel. but, if you read through the commentary on here it’s easy to see that other people take the term ‘memoir’ VERY seriously. lol. anyhoo, much love, cristy, much love, sm

  20. I mostly have no problem with fabrication in my entertainment, even if it’s a “true story” since I pretty much assume that everything is being skewed and messed with one way or another. No one really wants to be wrong, or the bad guy, so I think a lot of personal biases put a slant on most non-fiction subjects, even if it’s just an itty bitty subtle skewing. It all depends on the views of the person presenting the info. I’m often left wondering what they left out telling us and how that affects things. That being said, I also love to get on my researchy pants and go digging when I’m interested in something. Facts usually can be dug up, but the various perceptions of the facts and why they exist can be really interesting.

    1. “the various perception of the fact…can be really interesting.” so well said, lives. so well said. i think i’m very similar to you on this one. much love, sm

  21. I’m all for “creative licence” but once you find out something is not true you tend to question what is. A very fine line for writers to maneuver.

  22. In the interest of a good story, I don’t care if things gets stretched, bent, or a little warped 🙂 I have little interest in “the truth” but a whole lot of interest in a good line or situation.

  23. I must say I agree with you – the whole story doesn’t need to be completely true or evidenced. Even – especially? – our memory fails us, nothing that we recall is exactly as it happened. And even if it is, I am not going to trawl through historical records to confirm it. Unless perhaps it’s an important fact (like a story-changer), in which case I’d rather it be correct.

    Does it influence how I enjoy the book? No. There are so many other factors that are important to me than historical accuracy.

    1. i’m so with you. it’s got to be a GOOD story and that’s most important to me. i used to think that i don’t like historical stories to be fabricated, but then quentin tarantino did it with ‘ingrlorious bastards’ and i loved it. so, maybe when it comes to me the mantra is, ‘lie to me’!!! looool. much love, sm

      1. You touched on another tangent here – humour / satire. If that is the aim of a book / movie, I am even more to accept glaring historical inaccuracies.
        But in this case I think that’s more readily accepted by others, too, no?

  24. One of my favorite writers, David Sedaris, got in trouble for “inventing” some stories about his family to make his essays more interesting. And he readily confirmed that he embellished some incidents for effect, but that the core of what he wrote was true. I think as long as a writer stays true to the spirit of what happened or to the personality of their subject, it’s okay to add/subtract/extrapolate things in nonfiction. It might be nonfiction, but it’s not exactly a police report. It still needs to be interesting.

    1. i’m so with you on that. it’s just so interesting to me that david does that, yet, frey got hung out to dry on the issue. i wonder if it’s because david’s essays are funny and james wrote and addiction recovery “memoir,” which people take way more seriously. i’m with you on it, though. i say embellish. make it interesting. xo, sm

  25. Hmmmm… well, I don’t think anyone who reads my “The Ugly” post would think that I have presented the “best” version of myself. It is the full, unvarnished, ugly truth.

    And, I think that is exactly what I expect from someone who purports to be telling a story about themselves, the truth. Now, as you say, the color can be enhanced, the point of the story dramatized — because we are telling a “story” after all — but there’s definitely a bright line for me… and Mr. Frey crossed it.

    In fact, so did another blogger who presented a series of stories about “other” people that ended up being stories about himself. I caught on about midway through the series because I recognized the style of the story telling wasn’t actually changing. So, by the time he ‘fessed up, I was already there. But I felt cheated. I didn’t stop following him because I got the point he was making… but it was (and still is) a close call.

    I think the difference is what the work is presented as. Mabukah had it right, “Frey had this opportunity, he just marketed himself incorrectly by writing as absolute truth.” Had he presented it as “based on” a true story, he could have had just as big a response, and not lied in the process.

    So, if you tell me the work is “based on” a true story, I will expect some creative embellishments. But if you tell me the work is a memoir or autobiography or biography, well it better be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.

    Sorry for the long comment. :>

    1. you are not alone on this, wandering. you are not alone. a lot of people here feel this way. for me, i don’t blame frey. i think it is truly the publisher’s fault if anyone’s. however, if you had told me the story wasn’t completely true, i probably wouldn’t have cared. i really liked the book. what bothers me is that this guy – frey – tried to sell it as a fiction or based on a true story sort of thing and no one bought it. that’s just an author trying to get something sold. i think these publishing houses have a lot of money and it’s their responsibility to think about these things and work them out. the author has already created the work and is just trying to get people to read it. but, publishers no longer care, it seems, they put all of the onus on the writer and i don’t think that’s right. that’s my theory for the moment, anyway. thanks for the wonderful commentary, wandering. i enjoyed reading it and it’s never too long in my book. 🙂 xo, sm

      1. I hear ya and that’s a good point… I don’t blame him at all for wanting to get it published… just for going along with the cover up.

        BTW… did ya get my email? We were in fact at Thursday’s show. :>

  26. I would have been okay with Frey’s book had he said from the get-go it was fiction. The way he he lied in his “auto-biography” bugged me. Autobiographies should be real.

    I didn’t like the way Zsa Zsa Gabor’s supposed “auto-biography” made ridiculous claims. For one thing, she claimed she lost her virginity to a King, in his palatial gold-dusted palace. Please.

    Most people lose their virginity to a fellow classmate in the back seat of some eczema-like rust spotted hoopty.

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